Wiki: ID Career Opportunities

Note: This was a group project for IDD 600. Group members were Mitchell Dykstra, Brian Jones, and Britta Lafont. If videos do not load, please refresh the page.

Instructional Design Opportunities in
Military Education &
Training Environments

Introduction to the Military Setting

In the military, training and education are highly valued, required for advancement, ongoing throughout the career, and part of daily life, so instructional designers have a great opportunity to play an important role in the support and growth of military personnel. As a setting for instructional design, the military is unique in terms of its culture and mission. “For civilians with little or no personal exposure to the military culture, the Armed Forces may seem overwhelming, incomprehensible, esoteric, or even anachronistic. However, to understand, work with, and help those who serve in the Armed Forces, it is necessary to have a general understanding of the institution” (Halvorson, A., 2010. p. 1).The militaries of the United States and other nations are marked by a particular culture, defined by its extraordinary camaraderie and, despite many differences within each branch of service, a common purpose (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 159). As instructional designers collaborate with military leadership and create training for military personnel, it is critical to keep in mind the “the highly structured collective culture of military life” and other aspects of organizational culture that might be foreign to civilians (Suzuki, M., & Kawakami, A., 2016, p. 2060). Some issues that define military culture include:

  • Core Values.”Each service has its own specific values that are taught to new recruits from the beginning of their time in service…[these values] are more than a list of terms that young recruits must learn and repeat on command; these values define how each service member lives his or her life, approaches every duty, and succeeds at every mission” (Halvorson, A., 2010. pp.9-10).
  • A high view of order, discipline, action, leadership, and respect for authority (Suzuki, M. & Kawakami, A., 2016, pp. 2060-61)
  • A highly structured hierarchy, known as the “chain of command” (Suzuki, M. & Kawakami, A., 2016, pp. 2060-61)
  • The commitment of the individual to the group, upholding the best interests of the group over the individual (Suzuki, M. & Kawakami, A., 2016, pp. 2060-61)
  • A distinctive set of acronyms, jargon, and lingo. Here is a current list from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
  • Performance orientation and commitment to self-improvement and personal responsibility (Suzuki, M. & Kawakami, A., 2016, pp. 2060-61)
  • A high regard for training and self-improvement (see video below):

In contrast to typical bureaucracies, which tend to be resistant to change, “military organizations are subject to strong, if not irresistible, external and internal pressures to learn and to adopt new behaviors” (Foster R. E. & Fletcher, J.D., 2013, p. 308). The U.S. military’s need for regular change and improvement creates a consistent need for the development of new training and education, resulting in a natural partnership with the field of Instructional Design.

“Military training is distinguished from other forms of training by its emphases on discipline, just-in-case preparation, and the training of collectives” (Fletcher, J.D. Chatelier, P.R. 2002, p. I-1).

  • Training as Discipline: Military commanders view training as discipline that prepares the military member to perform at their highest level and keep their composure during the worst situations they can encounter (p. II-1).
  • Just-in-Case Training: Excellent military training prepares individuals and groups for the worst case-scenario of life-threatening, armed combat. This kind of preparation is called just-in-case training, which prepares the military to perform at a high-level of proficiency in conflicts and engagements. This is training that “we hope and often expect to be unnecessary” (p. II-2).
  • Training of Collectives: Many military organizations consider the training of individuals to be a personnel issue. “In this perspective, ‘training’ is what military commanders do to prepare the [collective: crew, group, team, or unit] they command” (pp. II-1-4).

For an overview of the typical training that various branches of the military undergo, visit http://todaysmilitary.com/training It is helpful to keep in mind that each service of the United States military—Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard—is a subculture unto itself with different ranks and uniforms, particular core values, and history (Halvorson, A., 2010, pp. 6, 9), all under the U. S. Department of Defense (the DoD). The mission of the DoD governs the mission of the U.S. Military: “The mission of the Department of Defense is to provide the military forces needed to deter war and to protect the security of our country” (The U.S. Department of Defense, 2017).

Though the security of the United States is the primary mission of the military, in recent years there has been an expansion of traditional duties, moving from fighting other nations to fighting terrorists, from national to global defense, from warriors to peacekeepers, dealing with human and trafficking and piracy on the open seas, and participating humanitarian efforts (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, pp. 160-161). In addition, joint exercises are increasing between various military forces within the U.S., with other government agencies and in multi-national coalitions (p. 161). The changes and challenges facing today’s military, along with the introduction of increasingly sophisticated technologies, require continued training and education, and this is where the Instructional Designer has a great opportunity to contribute.


History of Instructional Design in the Military

As it turns out, the history of instructional design in America is closely tied to the history of instructional design in the military. Just as it was a major event shaping the entire 20th century, World War 2 made a significant impact on the history of instructional design in the military and beyond. According to Reiser (2018) in Chapter 2 of our textbook “during a two-year period (from mid-1943 to mid-1945) it was estimated that there were over 4 million showings of training films and filmstrips to U.S. military personnel.”The video below was made in 1943, so it perhaps would be included in that estimated 4 million showings:

Reiser goes on to cite the work of Walter Dick, who in 1987 wrote about how the instructional work done in World War 2 went on to affect the psychology and instructional design fields for years to come:

When the programmed instruction movement began in the late fifties, there was already a receptive environment for any innovation in the area of human learning that could be applied in the classroom. This interest had been building since the second World War.

Conversations with pioneers in the field, Robert Gagne (personal communication, April, 1984) and Leslie Briggs (personal communication, April, 1984), indicate that a number of psychologists were influenced by the training demands made by World War II and the corresponding lack of relevant research and experience that could be drawn upon from the field of psychology. After the war these training problems continued to be of interest to many psychologists. (Dick, 1987)

When the programmed instruction movement began in the late fifties, there was already a receptive environment for any innovation in the area of human learning that could be applied in the classroom. This interest had been building since the second World War.

Conversations with pioneers in the field, Robert Gagne (personal communication, April, 1984) and Leslie Briggs (personal communication, April, 1984), indicate that a number of psychologists were influenced by the training demands made by World War II and the corresponding lack of relevant research and experience that could be drawn upon from the field of psychology. After the war these training problems continued to be of interest to many psychologists. (Dick, 1987)

In 1975, 30 years after the end of World War 2, one of the most influential instructional design models, ADDIE, was developed by Florida State University researchers working on a contract from the U.S. Army Combat Arms Training Board (Branson, 1975).


Methodologies within the Military Setting

Every 4 years, the Department of Defense is required (by the U.S. Congress) to publish the Quadrennial Defense Review Report, which “establishes the vision for all efforts by each of the individual services. Each service must examine its current means of doing business and transform itself against the measures provided in the QDR” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017).Because of the tremendous amount of training that occurs across the entire military, we suspect in practice there are a range of methodologies being used in various situations. This project cannot definitively list all of these, but we have done our best to find information that offers some insight into the overall approach.

We were able to find recent instructional design documents for the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. These are long, detailed documents, and reading over them makes it clear that each branch of the U.S. Military puts a lot of thought into its instructional design approach. Three out of the four documents we reviewed uses the ADDIE model to describe its process (Department of the Air Force, 2011; Department of the Army, 2017; Department of the Navy Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 2015). The Navy document (Department of the Navy Naval Education and Training Command, 2010) showed the use of a modified ADDIE model called PADDIE+M (Planning, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation, and Maintenance.)

As an example of how the documents from each service branch describe systems and models, let’s look at the Army Learning Policy and Systems document, which introduces a model called the Army Learning Model (ALM) with the following text:

ALM provides a framework and is about using good instructional design principles. It is not a one size fits all model. ALM allows designers the flexibility to design according to the training and education needs of the Soldiers. It is an adaptive, continuous learning model focused on providing quality, relevant, and effective learning experiences. ALM promotes outcome-oriented instructional strategies that foster thinking, initiative, and provide operationally relevant context. It features learning beyond the learning institution in a career- long continuum of learning through the significantly expanded use of network technologies. (Department of the Army, 2017, p.24)

Later, the document describes ADDIE as the “enterprise ISD” and states reasons for its adoption:

Centers and schools will use the enterprise Instructional System Design (ISD) to produce Army learning products. ISD is the process of designing and developing instructional courses or materials that bring greater efficiency and effectiveness to acquiring knowledge, skills, and attitudes to achieve required performance for learners. The ADDIE process is the enterprise ISD.

b. The Army adopted the ADDIE process for five primary reasons:

(1) It provides thoughtful identification of learning requirements based on analyses.

(2) It ensures focused learning on critical job performance requirements.

(3) It determines the specific objectives the learning intends to address, the associated experience required, and identifies the assessment required.

(4) It facilitates the generation and application of alternative learning methods.

(5) It reduces required resources through the application of technology to achieve expected learning outcomes. (Department of the Army, 2017, pp.26-27)

The aforementioned documents offer a lot of insight into how the military views instructional design processes. If you are interested in pursuing a career in military instructional design (see Instructional Design Jobs in the Military section below), we encourage you to explore those manuals further as part of your study.


Role of Instructional Design and Development
within the Military Setting

Instructional Design and Development plays a critical role in “the transformation to accommodate the needs of today’s service members and move the military of today to the military of tomorrow” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 159).The military provides subject matter experts to the instructional design process in the creation
of training and education programs, but places great trust in the professional Instruction Designer to have (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 159):

  • an expertise in learning theory and instructional strategies the ability to implement them
  • the ability to utilize technology at optimum levels in a variety of learning environments
  • ingenuity in approaches which blend learning solutions
  • a budget-minded approach
  • “understanding the military culture both at home and abroad as well as the culture of international forces” (p. 159)
  • excellent communication skills

The Role of Instructional Design and Technology is to apply knowledge of learning theory and technology to the subject matter, in partnership with subject matter experts, in the military setting, to achieve necessary changes in the system. Instructional Designers must balance the design considerations (theories, settings, opportunities) with the design issues (strengths, needs, limitations, and constraints) and be prepared to “make trade-offs” and concessions in order to develop plans and programs (with multiple, flexible options) to meet the needs of the military. Table 1 depicts the “systematic methodology for working through trade-offs,” and is based Bratton-Jeffery’s Figure 18.3 on page 164 in her chapter in Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. A hypothetical scenario is applied to Figure 18.3 to demonstrate its use.

In Table 1, the most significant design issue is creation of a joint training program. Clearly, this multi-force training requires a blended solution of classroom instruction and technology applications, but funding and budget are considerations (so offering a variety of alternatives like gamified simulations, as well as lower-cost options would be helpful). In addition, the jointness of program reveals a technology issue (perhaps due to incompatibilities existing between the technological systems of the different branches). Any performance support device or tool that is expected to be used on the job would need to be compatible across all systems.


Trends and Issues

Technology

Simulators have been used in military training as early as World War II, when they were used for flight training (Reiser, 2017, p. 9). This technology is still used extensively in military training for a wide range of applications. One of the major trends shaping the use of simulators in military is the use of virtual reality (VR) to increase learner immersion in the training environment and to better replicate the real-world scenarios in which the training is to be applied (Forces TV, 2016). VR simulator-based training has a wide range of military applications, including (but not limited to):

  • Medical Training

  • Combat Training
 Simulations such as these represent the higher end of the technological range for military training; however, military instructional products also include “the simplest paper-based, pocket-sized job aids” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162). The wide range of technology available can present challenges for instructional designers in a military setting because they must be able to produce effective instruction from a large number of different instructional products and stay up-to-date on their performance requirements (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162).

Funding

The wide range of industrial products available is well-suited for dealing with one of the largest issues in military education and training—funding (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162). The proposed 2018 budget for the United States’ Department of Defense (DoD) is approximately 640 billion dollars (Office of Management and Budget, 2017, p. 2), which comprises a significant proportion of the Federal budget (see the Figure 1, which is based on Office of Management and Budget, 2017).

Though it may seem odd to say that funding is an issue in military training, only a fraction of the overall budget is designated for use in the education or training of service members. In 2007 (this was the most recent data I could find on the subject), only about 16 billion dollars were used for the education and/or training of military personnel (Horowitz, 2016, p. 5). At the time, there were approximately 3.5 million military personnel (Department of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense, 2007, p. i), which means that under 5 thousand dollars were spent educating or training each service member. That’s less than half the cost of educating each K-12 student in the US in the 2007-2008 academic year (National Center for Education Statistics, 2017). Of course, things are certainly quite a bit more complicated than these numbers make it seem, it is clear that the military must be relatively frugal when it comes to education and training expenses.

Given these funding restrictions, using the most advanced and innovative technology for each instructional product is out of the question, so “suggesting new approaches to training using low-and high-tech methods incorporated with the mission equipment is an option that should be considered [by the instructional designer]” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162).

Delivery Environments and Distributed Learning Environments

A second issue for instructional designers working in military education and training is the wide range of delivery environments (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162). Unlike training in a civilian environment, which typically happens a separately from the work environment, military training is “integrated into the workplace…[and] takes place in the classroom, in garrison, in base and shipboard environments, and wherever personnel are deployed—even in combat,” so the instructional designer must be able to adapt instructional programs to a wide range of environments (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162).

In order to address the wide range of delivery environments, a current trend in military education and training is the use of distributed learning environments that permit “the interoperability of learning tools and course content on a global scale” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 163). The goal for the Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Initiative (sponsored by the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense) is to “provide access to the highest quality education and training, tailored to individual needs, delivered cost-effectively anywhere and anytime” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 163). In addition to providing an accessible education and training network for service members, the ADL also “conducts research, development, test [sic], and evaluation” focusing on the following areas in order to “provide learning science, specifications, guidance and best practices, and technology applications to the DoD, federal agencies, and coalition military partners:”

  • e-learning,
  • mobile learning and mobile performance support,
  • learning analytics and performance modeling,
  • learning theory,
  • Total Learning Architecture (TLA) infrastructure, and
  • web-based Virtual Worlds (VWs) and simulation (Advanced Distributed Learning, 2017).

Design Constraints and Jointness

A third issue facing instructional designers are design constraints due to the diversity of the different military branches (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162). The designer may be required to design instruction that applies to a number of different branches; however, the visions of the different branches may conflict and the different network infrastructures and equipment used by each branch may cause product compatibility issues (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162). Furthermore, in lieu of professional instructors, the military typically makes use of subject-matter experts (SMEs), who are very knowledgable about the material but might know very little about teaching or facilitating learning (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162). Therefore, the instructional designer may be required to produce train-the-trainer materials that “explain the lesson plans in a step-by-step manner and incorporate learning theory as well (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162).

Connected to the issue of design constraints is the trend of military “jointness,” which as embodied by the Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States(2013), “provides the doctrinal basis for interagency coordination and for US military involvement in multiagency and multinational operations” (p. i). Section six of the Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States includes standards for joint education and training, which is training that is designed to suit the needs of multiple branches simultaneously (p. 8-11). According to Bratton-Jeffery (2017), “inherent in this instructional design mission is recognition of the diversity of the force in terms of service perspective…, doctrine of allied forces…, and even cultural diversity such as differences in language and religion (p. 163).

Recruiting, Retention, and Lifelong Learning

In voluntary forces, such as the U.S. military, a major issue is “recruiting good people and retaining highly trained and skilled service members,” and the armed forces of various country have recognized the need to “provide for quality of life, especially in the areas of personal and professional growth” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162). To meet these needs, a developing trend is to provide continued learning opportunities within the service, known as “lifelong learning,” that “improve the service member within his or her occupational specialty and open the doors to many opportunities for those who leave service” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 163). For example, the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) makes it easier for service members in European Union (EU) countries to transfer between universities in the EU, which “allows military students to continue their personal learning goals while serving their countries abroad” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 163).

Remediation and Alternative Training Solutions

Historically, a fifth issue in military education and training was remedial training, which is required when service members do not achieve the desired results when training is complete (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162). In the past, service members “were remediated until mastery was achieved…this remediation was often done in the manner in which the original instruction was presented” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162). It is easy to see how this could be problematic. If a learner is not responding well to an instructional strategy, it is unlikely that additional exposure to instruction employing the same strategy will result in drastically improved learning outcomes. A current trend in military education and training, however, is for the instructional designer to “recommend completely different instructional strategies” or recommend that individual learners be allowed to select their preferred learning option (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 162).


Instructional Design Jobs in the Military

Given the extensive training requirements and diverse needs of the armed forces, it should come as no surprise that the services of instructional designers are often invoked in this setting. According to Bratton-Jeffery (2017), “[i]nstructional designers who work in the military environment are never bored and, given enough time, will have the opportunity to work in every aspect of instructional design from analysis to evaluation” (p. 165).The wide range of technology and focus on individual educational and training requirements means that instructional designers in a military setting will be involved in the design and development of a plethora of instructional products and “The knowledge of learning theories and instructional strategies that will be needed can be employed in virtually any manner: instructor-led or instructor-facilitated classroom, informal self-study, formal online learning courses with synchronous and/or asynchronous options, or a blend of any or all of these” (Bratton-Jeffery, 2017, p. 165). The Department of the Army (2017), for example, specifies that Army training occurs across three domains:

  • The operational domain includes “The training activities organizations undertake while at home station, at maneuver combat training centers, during joint exercises, at mobilization centers, and while operationally deployed” (p. 148).
  • The institutional domain is the “Army’s institutional training and education system, which primarily includes training base centers and schools that provide initial training and subsequent professional military education (PME) for Soldiers, military leaders, and Army Civilians” (p. 142).
  • The self-development domain is the “Planned, goal-oriented learning that reinforces and expands the depth and breadth of an individual’s knowledge base, self-awareness, and situational awareness; complements institutional and operational learning; enhances professional competence; and meets personal objectives” (p. 151).

In addition to the mandatory law-directed training, the Army also requires a number of unique training and educational products in each domain. The operational domain, for instance, requires learning products that include:

  • Soldier Training Publications (STPs), which provide “guidance on the conduct of individual Solider training in the unit and aids all Soldiers in the training of critical tasks” (p. 153);
  • Combined Arms Training Strategies (CATS), which “provide a descriptive holistic and METL Focused, task-based, event-driven strategy for all TOE units” (p. 133);
  • Warfighter Training Support Package (WTSP), which is a “complete, task-based, exportable package integrating training products, materials, and information necessary to train one or more collective tasks and/or one or more individual tasks” (p. 159);
  • collective tasks, which are “clearly defined, discrete observable and measurable activity or action which requires organized team or unit performance and leads accomplishment of the task to a defined standard” (p. 133); and
  • drills, each of which is a “collective action (or task) performed without the application of a deliberate decision making process…[,] is initiated on a cue, such as enemy action or leader’s simple command, and is a trained response to the given stimulus” (p. 138).

So, that is five different types of educational programs within only one out of the three U.S. Army domains. If one extrapolates to the rest of the U.S. military, he or she can see that there is a very large number of diverse educational and training programs that require the expertise of instructional designers for analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.


References

Advanced Distributed Learning (2017). ADL Research. Retrieved from: https://www.adlnet.org/research

Branson, R.K. (1975). Interservice procedures for instructional systems development: Executive summary and model. Tallahassee, FL: Center for Educational Technology, Florida State University. (National Technical Information Service). Document Nos. AD-A019 486 to AD-A019490).

Bratton-Jeffery, Mary F. (2017). Instructional design opportunities in military education and training environments. In Reiser & Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (pp. 159-167). New York, NY: Pearson.

Department of the Air Force (2011). Air Force Instruction 36-2201. Retrieved from https://www.capmembers.com/media/cms/AFI36_2201_3FFA13E7C593F.pdf

Department of the Army (2017). Army learning policy and systems [PDF file]. Retrieved from: http://www.tradoc.army.mil/tpubs/regs/tr350-70.pdf

Department of Defense (2014, March). Quadrennial defense review report. Retrieved from: http://archive.defense.gov/pubs/2014_Quadrennial_Defense_Review.pdf

Department of the Navy Headquarters United States Marine Corps (2015). Marine Corps Instructional Systems Design/Systems Approach to Training and Education Handbook. Retrieved from: http://www.marines.mil/Portals/59/Publications/NAVMC%201553.1A.pdf?ver=2017-01-09-072054-373

Department of the Navy Naval Education and Training Command (2010). Naval Education and Training Command Integrated Learning Environment Course Development and Life-Cycle Maintenance. Retrieved from:
http://www.netc.navy.mil/ile/_Documents/NAVEDTRA136/NAVEDTRA_136.pdf

Dick, W. (1987) A history of instructional design and its impact on educational psychology. In J. Glover & R. Roning (Eds.), Historical foundations of educational psychology. New York: Plenum.

Doctrine for the armed forces of the united states (2013) [PDF file]. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp1.pdf

Forces TV (2016). Virtual reality: The future of military training [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6pEbpNM1Q4

Halvorson, A. (2010). Understanding the Military: The Institution, the Culture, and the People. [PDF file]. Report prepared for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:
https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/military_white_paper_final.pdf

Horowitz, S. A. (2016). The full cost of military personnel [PDF file]. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=AD1006892

National Center for Education Statistics (2017). Fast facts. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=66

[Marines]. (2016, September 13). We Have to Win [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/Hp8yOVErj9I

Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (2007). Demographics 2007: Profile of the military community [PDF file]. Retrieved from: http://download.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/Reports/2007%20Demographics.pdf

Office of Management and Budget (2017). Budget of the U. S. Government: A new foundation for American greatness [PDF file]. Retrieved from: https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/omb/budget/fy2018/budget.pdf

Reiser, Robert A. (2018). A History of Instructional Design and Technology. In Reiser & Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (pp. 8-22. New York, NY: Pearson.

Suzuki, M., & Kawakami, A. (2016). U.S. Military Service Members’ Reintegration, Culture, and Spiritual Development. [PDF file]. The Qualitative Report, 21(11), 2059-2075. Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol21/iss11/4

The U.S. Department of Defense. (2017, January 27). About the Department of Defense (DOD)., Retrieved from: https://www.defense.gov/about/ 

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Wiki: Performance Systems / Various Interventions

Note: This was a group project for IDD 630. Group members were Britta Lafont and Sunnie McWhorter. If videos do not load, please refresh the page.

Job Analysis/Work Design Interventions

Introduction and Scope

(video)

Job Analysis

Job analysis may be an independent intervention or it may be incorporated into the process of performance analysis as a whole. It is the systematic review of the necessary processes, skills, and knowledge required to effectively do a job. Job analysis documentation is often legally required for Human Resource purposes. Job Description and Job Specification are two examples of Job Analysis interventions (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 291). Instructional Designers should remember that the job analysis performs a similar function in the HPI model to the analysis step of instructional design models, such as ADDIE and the Dick and Carey model.

Job Description

Job Descriptions are job-focused; they are important for delineating tasks and defining the functions of a job. Though no standard format exists, a complete, written job description should include: major tasks performed (and the percentage of time devoted to each task); standards for performance; typical work conditions; the direct report chain; and the technology, machines, equipment, tools, etc (non-human resources) required to perform the job. Job descriptions are necessary for most of the aspects of work design (Van Tiem et al., 2012, pp. 292-294).

Job Specification

Job Specifications are performer-focused; they “list the minimum qualifications that a person needs to perform the job successfully: [such as] …knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experience,” but also include aptitude, necessary training, capacity limits, environment, and necessary non-human resources (tools and equipment). Performance improvement practitioners determine the difference between qualifications that are preferred, those that are absolutely necessary, and those that are legally required. (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 295).

Work Design

Work design is the strategic organization of jobs within and across departments with the goal of maximizing efficiency and productivity. These goals are achieved only when each departmental subsection is aware of the interdependence of their work. Examples of Work Design interventions include job design, enlargement, rotation, enrichment, reengineering, realignment, and restructuring. Instructional Designers should remember that work design is “tied to the strategy and goals of the organization” (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 295). Designers must be well-verse in the organization’s strategic plan so the selected work design interventions align with the stated vision, mission, values, and goals (p. 133).

Job Design

Job Design is a mechanism of change that puts “isolated tasks together to form complete job,” focused on these processes:

  • work duties
  • activities
  • responsibilities
  • desired outcomes

The performance practitioner must determine when, where and how to change the job, taking into consideration workflow, processes, necessary training, and support (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 295). For more information on job design, visit this link: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-management/chapter/job-design-and-motivation/

Job Enlargement & Job Rotation & Job Enrichment

Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment are similar, in that both add tasks to an existing job. Job Enrichment adds related tasks (horizontal enrichment) and responsibilities (vertical enrichment). Job enlargement increases the job scope by adding unrelated tasks, and is done to increase job satisfaction and decrease employee error, often leading to increases in customer satisfaction. An example of Job Enlargement is Job Rotation which has employees taking on completely different jobs on a regular basis, offering flexible workflow, such as cross training in another department or area (Van Tiem et al., 2012, pp. 296-297).

This is a very informative article on Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/242816

This article discusses the use of Job Rotation to improve aspects of Human Factors (see below) such as ergonomics and safety: http://ergo-plus.com/job-rotation/

Reengineering, Realignment, Restructuring

Reengineering, Realignment, and Restructuring are management processes designed to increase efficiency especially by making changes in organizational processes
(Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 297-298).

Reengineering is the “radical redesign of processes for the purpose of extensive rather than gradual performance improvement.” Here is the original article in Harvard Business Review (1990) written by Michael Hammer, who coined the term “Reengineering” http://www.markd.nl/content/references/1990Hammer.pdf

Realignment refers to organizational change designed to focus on being true to its strategic plan (mission, vision, values, goals); also known as “alignment,” read more about this practice here: https://www.forbes.com/sites/larrymyler/2012/10/16/strategy-101-its-all-about-alignment/#492bf6c928cf

Restructuring results in significant change to the organizational chart (units, divisions or departments). This article shows different strategies for restructuring an organization: https://www.brighthub.com/office/human-resources/articles/122397.aspx

Human Factors

Human factors relate to the way in which the people of an organization interact with their co-workers, the equipment, and the environment. Four areas relating to human factors that should be considered during performance analysis are ergonomics, safety engineering, security management, and the green workplace (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 298).

Instructional Designers should remember that the human side of performance (physical, mental, and social) is critical to the overall success of the organization. Other interventions that are integrated into Humans Factors include (from work design) job design, job enlargement, job rotation, (from Quality Improvement) continuous improvement and preventive maintenance.

Ergonomics

Ergonomics is the study and development of the environment and tools necessary to complete the work. The two main areas of ergonomic study focus on the physical and mental aspects of work. Physical ergonomics is the study of the workstation and the physical movement necessary to complete the work. Mental ergonomics explores the environment’s effect on the worker’s ability to process information. Three key concepts involved in ergonomics include:

  • fitting the job and workplace to the worker
  • designing the workplace to accommodate a variety of sizes of workers
  • designing the workplace to accommodate workers at the extreme ranges of body-size

Interventions involving ergonomics may include decisions such as tool selection, proper lighting, or adjusting the height of chairs (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 298-299). The following slideshow highlights some of the many benefits to an ergonomic workplace:

Safety Engineering

Safety engineering is the term used to describe all of the principles put in place to ensure a safe and healthy work environment. The safety practices will vary depending on the type of work that is being done in the workplace. This may include anything from training on hazardous waste and blood-borne pathogens to the wearing of ear protection and hard hats. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sets the standards to which most businesses must adhere (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 299). This article elaborates on the value of safety training for employees: http://www.safetypartnersltd.com/why-osha-safety-training-is-important/#.Wq_e4ujwbIU

Security Management

Security management is quite broad in scope. It involves the protection of all personnel and company property as well as the measures taken to ensure cyber security (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 299).

Green Workplace

An organizational culture than favors green practices, or a green workplace, is showing “solid relationships with people, long-term profitability, and a commitment to improving the planet” (VanTiem, et al., 2012, p. 300). This kind of environmental awareness is displayed in a recent Newsweek article, which rated companies according to their sensitivity toward—and support of—environmentally sound practices. Analysts compared companies to industry peers based on the following performance indicators (in terms of being environmentally responsible):

  • Energy Productivity
  • Total Greenhouse gas (GHG) Emissions
  • Water Productivity
  • Waste Productivity
  • Green Revenue Percent (based on a taxonomy derived from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Green Goods & Services)
  • Having a system that ties monetary rewards for executives to achievement of environmental performance targets.
  • Employing a high level committee devoted to environmental matters, which is audited by, and accountable to, a third party.
  • Exhibiting a minimum of monetary environmental fines, penalties, and settlements
  • Not benefitting, majorly, from harmful products or services (such as coal operations, tobacco and weapons manufacturing).
From: U.S. Top 10. (2018, January 17). Retrieved March 17, 2018, from http://www.newsweek.com/green-rankings-2017-18 Newsweek.

This article explains how Newsweek determined the Green Rankings: http://www.newsweek.com/newsweek-green-rankings-2017-methodology-739761

Quality Improvement

Quality improvement is the systematic approach to analyzing the quality of each aspect of performance. The goal of quality improvement is to ensure that a quality product is being produced while using the minimal resources. Quality and efficiency are the driving factors for quality improvement (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 301). Instructional Designers should remember that Quality Improvement Interventions in business serve a similar purpose to the continuous evaluation/improvement focus at work in traditional instructional design environments like education.

In fact, even though “[Total Quality Management] (see below) was designed for use in the manufacturing sector which had repetitive processes, clearly defined customers and profit as the bottom line means of survival,” it served as an inspiration for educational initiatives like the Quality Matters , a program in place here at UAB, as well as other quality assurance and accountability programs in education (White, 1994, p, 115).

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Total quality management is a business philosophy that focuses on quality, both in production and customer service. This is achieved through establishing relationships with both internal and external stakeholders to facilitate usable feedback. Organization and monitoring of controls to track progress are key to the success of this business practice (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 301). This article does a great job of explaining the eight principles involved in TQM:
http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/total-quality-management/overview/overview.html

Continuous Improvement

Continuous improvement is the long-term practice of systematically comparing productivity, service, and customer satisfaction to the predetermined standards or goals. All stakeholders in an organization are involved in continuous improvement as this discipline is critical to setting goals, determining strategies, and achieving success (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 305).

Preventive Maintenance (PM)

Preventive maintenance is a manufacturing term, but the concept is easily applied across many corporate operating systems. PM uses a proactive approach to troubleshooting with the goal of preventing problems from occurring. “Preventive maintenance is everybody’s business; it is performer-centered and is integrated within all job functions in all industries” (Van Tiem et al., 2012, p. 306).

Six Sigma

Six sigma is a business philosophy that streamlines predictability in both the production of goods and the service required to distribute those goods.This page is a great breakdown of the many tools used in six sigma: http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/six-sigma/tools.html

Six Sigma is a systematic process of quality improvement that works parallel to the Performance Improvement Model (Van Tiem et al., 2012, pp. 306-307). The application methods are included in the following chart:

Lean Organizations

Lean organizations do more with less. These organizations are value driven and strive to operate with zero waste. Any source of waste that can be identified is addressed and minimized or eliminated. Lean principles can be applied to all organizational systems to maximize efficiency and are most successful when implemented from upper management down to all employees (Van Tiem et al., 2012, pp. 307-308).
This article shows the Lean principles being applied across several very different industries;
https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/operations/our-insights/next-frontiers-for-lean

The video below is an interview with the former Senior Vice President of Worldwide Operations for Amazon, who discusses the value of lean principles.

Combination–Lean Six Sigma

It may be that neither the principles of Lean nor Six Sigma alone suit an organization. If this is the case, the United States Air Force demonstrates an additional option—combining the two philosophies. This article discusses how they created their own unique, quality program:
https://www.6sigma.us/armed-forces/lean-six-sigma-in-us-air-force-towards-lean-mean-air-force/

Conclusion

Tips and Tricks

Each intervention has its own considerations for workplace implementation. Job Analysis Interventions must fit within the workplace context, be targeted to the nature of the tasks, and give consideration to available resources. In Work Design Interventions, a good understanding of work requirements at each level of the organization and a knowledge that different sectors of the business influence one another are key. Human Factors Interventions are best implemented by the practitioner with strong networking skills allowing him/her to have better access to relevant information. Quality Improvement Interventions focus on problem prevention rather than problem solving; practitioners need to look for what is missing as well as what is there, so they can forecast potential pitfalls and address and avoid difficulties.

Top Takeaways

Performance Improvement Practitioners work to improve the organization (ROI, increased efficiency, higher profit margin, better branding), but are also equally committed to improving the workplace for the good of the worker (giving consideration to their safety, job satisfaction, professional growth, etc.).

Work Design interventions are implemented with the goal of increasing efficiency which benefits both the employer and the employee.

In Work Design interventions, it becomes clear that an organization is like a living entity: having a unified purpose, made up of interdependent units, with internal and external stakeholders to satisfy. The Performance Improvement Practitioner must be flexible enough to be aid in addressing larger issues like the green footprint of a company and smaller problems like the need for a job description for hiring purposes.

References

Duncan, E., & Ritter, Ron. (2014, February). Next frontiers for lean. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved from:
https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/operations/our-insights/next-frontiers-for-lean

Gordon, B. (n.d.) Why OSHA training is important. Retrieved from:
http://www.safetypartnersltd.com/why-osha-safety-training-is-important/#.WrRKi-jwbIV

Hammer, M. (1990). Reengineering at work: Don’t automate, obliterate. Harvard Business Review, July-August, 104-112. Retrieved from: http://www.markd.nl/content/references/1990Hammer.pdf

Here is everything you need to know about Green Rankings 2017: Methodology. (2017, December 07).  Newsweek. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from http://www.newsweek.com/newsweek-green-rankings-2017-methodology-739761

Kulpa, J. (2015, February 23). To motivate employees, find a balance between job enrichment and job
enlargement. Retrieved from: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/242816

Lean six sigma in the US Air Force–towards a lean mean Air Force. (2017, March 17). Retrieved from:
https://www.6sigma.us/armed-forces/lean-six-sigma-in-us-air-force-towards-lean-mean-air-force/

Middlesworth, M. A Step by step guide to job rotation. Retrieved from: http://ergo-plus.com/job-rotation/

Myler, L. (2012, October 16). Strategy 101: It’s all about alignment. Forbes. Retrieved from:
https://www.forbes.com/sites/larrymyler/2012/10/16/strategy-101-its-all-about-alignment/#4276f18928cf

Onetto, M. (2014, February). When Toyota met e-commerce: lean at Amazon. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved from: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/operations/our-insights/when-toyota-met-e-commerce-lean-at-amazon

5 proven benefits of workplace ergonomics. (2013, January 29).  Ergonomics Plus . Retrieved from: https://www.slideshare.net/ErgonomicsPlus/5-proven-benefits-of-workplace-ergonomics

Thakur, S. (2011, July 31). Business restructuring: a look at some strategies. Retrieved from:
https://www.brighthub.com/office/human-resources/articles/122397.aspx

U.S. Top 10. (2018, January 17). Newsweek. Retrieved March 17, 2018, from http://www.newsweek.com/green-rankings-2017-18

Van Tiem, D.M., Moseley, J.L., & Desinger, J.C. (2012). Fundamentals of performance improvement:
Optimizing results through people, process, and organizations. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Westcott, R. (2013). What is total quality management. In The certified manager of quality/organizational excellence handbook. Retrieved from:
http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/total-quality-management/overview/overview.html

White, S. (1994). Total quality management in the public sector–issues for implementation. Health information management: Journal of the Health Information Management Association of Australia, 24(3), 115-117.

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